Chapter 3. Enzymes [JHS]

Enzymes are protein molecules which can define as biological catalysts
Catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction, but remain unchanged at the end of the reaction.

Enzyme molecules have an active site.
The active site on an enzyme is a region, usually a cleft or depression, to which another molecule or molecules can bind.

How an enzyme works

All enzymes have certain properties
* All enzymes are protein, but not all protein is enzyme. It’s a functional protein not a structural protein
* Enzymes are catalysts, speeds up a chemical reaction, but remain unchanged at the end of the reaction.
* Enzymes are inactivated by high temperatures, this because they are proteins, which are damaged by temperatures above 40’C
* Enzymes work best at a particular pH, most enzymes work best at a pH about 7, this because they are proteins, which are damaged by very acid or very alkaline conditions
* Enzymes are specific, Each type of enzyme will usually act on only one type of substrate molecule. This is because the shape of the active site will only allow one shape of molecule to fit.

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